Apple Cider vinegar for diabetes has shown positive effects when consumed by adults with prediabetes, before meals, during meals, and before bedtime. Studies highlighted on this page cover how apple cider vinegar plays a role in blood sugar and insulin management.
- Diabetes is a disease that affects more than 100 million U.S Adults and over 400 million adults worldwide.
- A healthy diet, regular physical activity, maintaining a normal body weight and avoiding tobacco use are ways to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes
- Apple Cider Vinegar along with many other types of vinegar are proven methods of controlling blood sugar and insulin levels in your body.
- Apple cider vinegar aids in lowering blood sugar levels by preventing the complete digestion of complex carbs.
- Apple Cider vinegar has shown positive effects when consumed by adults with prediabetes, before meals, during meals, and before bedtime.
Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose mainly comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin.(1) Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. If you have type 2 diabetes your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, your pancreas makes extra insulin to make up for it. But, over time it isn’t able to keep up and can’t make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose at normal levels.(2)
12 Scientific Facts About Diabetes
- More than 100 million U.S. adults are now living with diabetes. (3)
- 9.4 percent of the U.S. population –have diabetes.
- 84.1 million have prediabetes.
- Diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the U.S. in 2015.
- In 2015, an estimated 1.5 million new cases of diabetes were diagnosed among people ages 18 and older.
- The number of people with diabetes worldwide has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014.(4)
- The global prevalence of diabetes* among adults over 18 years of age has risen from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014.
- Diabetes prevalence has been rising more rapidly in middle- and low-income countries.
- Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputation.
- In 2015, an estimated 1.6 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. Another 2.2 million deaths were attributable to high blood glucose in 2012.
- Almost half of all deaths attributable to high blood glucose occur before the age of 70 years. WHO projects that diabetes will be the seventh leading cause of death in 2030.
- A healthy diet, regular physical activity, maintaining a normal body weight and avoiding tobacco use are ways to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes.
- Diabetes can be treated and its consequences avoided or delayed with diet, physical activity, medication and regular screening and treatment for complications.
Apple Cider Vinegar for Diabetes
Many people that are curious about apple cider vinegar are interested in its effects with diabetes and more specifically type 2 diabetes. Various studies have shown that ACV along with many other kinds of vinegar are proven methods of controlling blood sugar and insulin levels in your body. (5)
The scientific community believes that this is due the acetic acid in apple cider vinegar that aids in lowering blood sugar levels by preventing the complete digestion of complex carbs. What this means is that your body insulin levels can be properly regulated, preventing huge spikes as sugar is released more slowly and evenly in the bloodstream.(6)
Professor Carol Johnston Ph.D., working on the subject of apple cider vinegar for diabetes with her research team from the department of nutrition at Arizona state university, have published results on the following four studies (7):
- Apple cider vinegar before meals.
- Apple cider vinegar before bedtime.
- Apple cider vinegar during meals for healthy adults.
- ACV for healthy adults with prediabetes.
Apple Cider Vinegar for Diabetes Study #1: Consumption Before Meals
The research team from Arizona state university, have recently shown that drinking apple cider vinegar slows the rise of blood sugar after the consumption of a high-carbohydrate meal. The results are reported in the scientific journal Diabetes Care in 2004.(8)
Study #1 Test Procedure – Apple Cider Vinegar for Diabetes
In this study, 29 people were given a breakfast of orange juice and a bagel, which contained a total of 87 grams of carbohydrates.
Two minutes before the meal, half of the subjects were given 20 grams (about 4 teaspoons) of apple cider vinegar mixed with 40 grams water and 1 teaspoon saccharine. The other half were given a placebo drink.
A crossover trial was conducted a week later, at which time the placebo group received the vinegar.
The participants’ blood sugar levels were measured before and after the breakfast. They were classified into 3 separate groups as follows:
- 10 people with type 2 diabetes
- 11 people with prediabetes (insulin resistant)
- 8 healthy control people (insulin sensitive)
Study #1 Results
Analysis of the results showed that in all 3 groups the consumption of apple cider vinegar slowed the rise of blood sugar after the high-carbohydrate breakfast:
- For the group with prediabetes, their blood sugar levels after the meal dropped by 34%.
- For the group with type 2 diabetes, their blood sugar levels dropped by 19%.
Study #1 Observations and Conclusions
Based on these results and two other recent studies, (see references 9 & 10), Dr. Johnston thinks that the vinegar tonic interferes with the absorption of high-carbohydrate foods which reduces the blood sugar rise that normally occurs after a meal.
In her words,” The acetic acid in vinegar may inhibit enzymes that digest starch so that carbohydrate molecules aren’t available for absorption and are eliminated as fecal matter.”
” Vinegar appears to have effects similar to some of the most popular medications for diabetes” (Acarbose or Metformin) continues professor Johnston and “Further investigations to examine the efficacy of vinegar as an antidiabetic therapy are warranted.” This is especially important given that a 50% increase in the number of Americans with type 2 diabetes is expected in the next 25 years.
In addition, the Diabetes Prevention Program and STOP-NIDDM, two recent large-scale trials, have shown that therapeutic agents used to improve insulin sensitivity in diabetes, may also delay or prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes in people with prediabetes.
Apple Cider Vinegar for Diabetes Study # 2: Consumption Before Bedtime
In August 2007 a second trial was conducted at Arizona State University, this time to determine the effect apple cider vinegar would have on the fasting blood sugar levels of people with type 2 diabetes.
Study #2 Test Procedure – Apple Cider Vinegar for Diabetes
11 people with type 2 diabetes, who were not taking insulin but were taking prescription oral antidiabetic medication, were given either 1 oz cheese and water (placebo group) or 1 oz cheese and 2 tablespoons of vinegar at bedtime for two days.
A crossover trial was conducted a few days later, at which time the placebo group received the vinegar and cheese, and the vinegar group received only cheese and water.
Fasting blood sugar levels were measured every morning.
Study #2 – Test Results
The researchers found the average fasting blood glucose levels fell by 2% with the placebo (cheese only) and by 4% with the vinegar and cheese.
On closer examination of the data, they found that those participants with the highest fasting glucose levels benefited the most from the evening vinegar drink – their fasting blood glucose levels fell by 6%.(11)
Study #2 – Observations and Conclusions
These results show that apple cider vinegar, taken with cheese at bedtime, can significantly lower the waking glucose concentrations in type 2 diabetics.
And the authors of this study conclude that “Vinegar is widely available, it is affordable, and it is appealing as a remedy, but much more work is required to determine whether vinegar is a useful adjunct therapy for individuals with diabetes.”
Apple Cider Vinegar for Diabetes: Study #3: During Meals for Healthy Adults
In January 2010 another study was published by the Arizona State University team, this time mainly to determine the effect apple cider vinegar would have on the blood sugar levels of healthy adults.
Study #3 Test Procedure – Apple Cider Vinegar for Diabetes
In this study, 4 randomized crossover trials were conducted with about 30 healthy adults and 9 adults with type 2 diabetes.
All participants ate a standardized meal the evening prior to testing, then after a 10 hour overnight fast were given a test meal consisting of a bagel, butter and fruit juice with or without 10 grams of vinegar. Two hours later, glucose testing was conducted.
Study #3 – Test Results
Analysis of the results showed that for healthy adults, taking 2 teaspoons of vinegar ( 10 grams) with a meal composed of complex carbohydrates reduces blood sugar levels by 20% compared to placebo, as measured 2 hours after the meal.
10 grams of 5% acetic acid vinegar was found to be the most effective dose to lower blood glucose levels and taking the vinegar during the meal was more effective compared to 5 hours before the meal.(12)
Study #3 – Observations and Conclusions
The researchers state that taking steps to reduce “after-meal blood sugar levels” is recommended by the American Diabetes Association to limit complications of diabetes.
They also say that “…two teaspoons of vinegar could be consumed palatably in hot tea with lemon at mealtime.”
Apple Cider Vinegar for Diabetes: Study #4: Healthy Adults at Risk for Developing Type 2 Diabetes
In this 12 week study published in April 2013, Carol S Johnston and her team at the Arizona State University evaluated the therapeutic effect of daily apple cider vinegar ingestion for healthy individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes.
Study #4 Test Procedure – Apple Cider Vinegar for Diabetes
14 healthy adults participated in the study and 8 of them were diagnosed with prediabetes.
The 14 individuals were separated into two groups of seven.
The first group was given a commercially available apple cider vinegar drink containing 1 tablespoon of vinegar which works out to 750 mg of acetic acid. This was taken just before lunch and dinner meals each day.
The second group was given a commercial apple cider vinegar pill, containing 40 mg of acetic acid per tablet, daily before lunch and dinner meals. Testing of blood glucose levels was done twice daily, upon waking in a fasted state and 2 hours after meals.
Test Results, Observations and Conclusions – Study #4
As was found in previous studies, vinegar ingestion significantly reduced blood glucose concentrations in healthy adults and in healthy adults diagnosed with prediabetes, both after meals and after waking up in the morning.
The reduction in blood glucose levels was not as big for the second group who took the vinegar pills containing the lower amount of acetic acid.
The researchers state that these results support a therapeutic effect for vinegar in people at risk for type 2 diabetes, including those diagnosed with prediabetes.(13)
- “9 Symptoms of Type 1 & Type 2 Diabetes: Treatment, Causes & Diet.” https://www.medicinenet.com/diabetes_mellitus/article.htm
- “Type 2 Diabetes – American Diabetes Association.” http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/type-2/
- “New CDC report: More than 100 million Americans have diabetes or ….” 18 Jul. 2017, https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2017/p0718-diabetes-report.html
- “Global Report on Diabetes – World Health Organization.” 7 Apr. 2016, http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/204871/1/9789241565257_eng.pdf
- “Functional Properties of Vinegar – Budak – 2014 … – Wiley Online Library.” 8 May. 2014, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1750-3841.12434/full.
- “How to Lose Weight with Apple Cider Vinegar | Avocadu.” https://avocadu.com/how-to-lose-weight-with-apple-cider-vinegar/
- “Apple Cider Vinegar and Diabetes – Diabetes Self-Management.” 25 May. 2011, https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/blog/apple-cider-vinegar-and-diabetes/
- “Vinegar Improves Insulin Sensitivity to a High … – Diabetes Care.” http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/27/1/281
- “Acetic Acid Feeding Enhances Glycogen Repletion in Liver and ….” https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/131/7/1973/4686778
- “Acetic acid suppresses the increase in disaccharidase activity … – NCBI.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10702577
- “Vinegar Ingestion at Bedtime Moderates Waking … – Diabetes Care.” http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/30/11/2814
- “Examination of the anti-glycemic properties of vinegar in healthy … – NCBI.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20068289
- “Therapeutic effect of daily vinegar ingestion for individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes” -Bragg.” https://bragg.com/products/PDFs/ASU%20Bragg%20ACV%20Drink%20Study.pdf.